CHIP ON BOARD [COB] MANUFACTURING

Have you ever wondered what the black blob on the calculator or Remote or any other electronics PCB does, or at least is it any part or is it a misfired glue blob from the hot glue gun turned black!!!

This is a picture of a 16X2 LCD module with Chip On Board [COB]

Its actually called Chip On Board or [COB], and the black blob is the protective covering given to the bare bone chip which is the brain of any device that is in.

COB Manufacturing

Shown above is a tray of controller silicon dies that serve as the brain of the multimeter

The first step is to glue the silicon die to the PCB. I’m not entirely sure if the adhesive is conductive or not, but, judging by the exposed pad, it probably is.

With a pair of tweezers the dies are placed by hand(!). The adhesive sets within 5 minutes. This was another moment that caught me off guard: I assumed COB required a clean room with precision tools and ultra-accurate placement. It turns out, just like SMD soldering in a hot plate; you can have a lot of variance and still have a fully functional board.

The PCB is then inserted into an amazing automated wire bonding machine that bonds a very thin wire from the IC to the PCB. You can see the operator has to tell the visual recognition system a few alignment spots once in awhile, but in general, the machine quickly solders all the connections.

In this picture you can clearly see the Silicon chip connected to the pad by a mesh of wires.

Forty one connections later, and the die is all connected up. As you can see, the small theta rotation of the IC doesn’t make much of a difference.

A assembler squirting a small dab of potting compound over the entire structure.

The next step is to squirt a small dab of potting compound over the entire structure. This material electrically and physically protects the die and wire bonds from damage.

The viscosity of the compound must be tightly controlled to prevent the hairs from bending over and connecting with neighboring wires.

The liquid compound is then cured in an oven for four hours. Once complete the boards are tested and continue down the process of becoming a multimeter.

 

CONNECTING A 12V RELAY TO AN ARDUINO

To connect a 12V relay to the Arduino you need the following things:

- 1 Arduino

- 1 diode for example 1N4007

- 1 NPN transistor for example 2N2222 (in the US) or BC548 (in Europe)

- 1 relay for example one with coil voltage 12V and switching voltage 125VAC/10 A

- 1 multimeter

Step 1: Measure the coil resistance

The Relay contacts

We are going to measure the coil resistance to calculate the current.

First we must find the coil:
On some relays the pins are labeled so you can just measure at pin 2 & 5.

Otherwise you have to measure at every pin:

Between two pins you should have between 100 and 10 000 Ohm. Remember that value. That are the two terminals of the coil. The coil is not polarized so its not important which one goes to V+ or GND.

If you have found those there are only three left. Between two should be a connection (if you measure a few Ohm its okay but everything above 50Ohm is too much). One of them is NC and one is COM. To find out which is which let one probe connected and connect the other to the pin that’s left over. If you connect the coil to 12V DC it should make a clicking noise. If your multimeter now shows a low resistance you have found COM and NO. The one probe you didn’t move is COM the other is NO

Step 2: Calculate how much current will flow

The formula you need is a simple one:

V = R * I

OK, but we want the current “I” right ? So just divide through the Resistance “R”.

V = R * I / :R

I = V/R

For my relay that would be:

I = 12V / 400Ohm
I = 0.03 A => 30 mA (That is Ic)

The Arduino can handle up to 20mA but its better to use a transistor even if your current is only 20mA. So for 30mA you definitely need one.

Step 3: Choose your transistor

First find the Datasheet of your transistor. For example search for “2N2222 datasheet”.

Your transistor should comply to  the following things:

- It has to be NPN not PNP !!

- Ic should be bigger than the value you calculated in step 2

- Vceo should be bigger than the supply voltage

Step 4: Calculating R1

You can find the value of hfe in your datasheet:
Mine says for BC548 its 75 at 10mA at 10V. Its not very precise cause its very difficult to build transistor with a accurate hfe.

hfe = Ic / Ib

We know hfe and Ic so lets calculate Ib:

Ib = Ic / hfe

For BC548:

Ib = 0.03 A / 75
Ib = 0.0004 A => 0.4 mA

Due to Ohms Law:

R1 = U / Ib
R1 = 5V / 0.0004 A
R1 = 12500 Ohm
This is not very accurate to so we use 10kOhm.

Step 5: Choosing your diode
The diode is needed cause the voltage will rise high if you suddenly change the voltage at the inductor. The formula for the voltage is:

V_L = – L * delta i/delta t

So theoretically if delta t equals zero U will be infinite.

But due to the minus in front you can add a diode in the “false direction” parallel to the relay. So the current can flow till its zero so the voltage is also zero.

Step 6: The schematic

Your datasheet says which pins are E, B and C.
Before you connect your Arduino connect a 4.5V Batteries negative terminal to GND and its positive terminal to R1. The relay should make a clicking noise if not, check your circuit.

Step 8: The Program

/*————————————————————————————

  • relaytest |
  • Author: Shriram |
  • Date: 12 May 2014 |
  • Function: Toggles Pin 13 every 10 Seconds |

*/———————————————————————————–

int outPin = 13;

void setup()
{
pinMode(outPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop()
{
digitalWrite(outPin, HIGH);
delay(10000);
digitalWrite(outPin, LOW);
delay(10000);
}

I know the program can be vastly edited and used, but all i needed was a program to check my relay, so this one did the job.
Until Next time
Shriram
Source : Instructables

BEYOND THE BLACKBOX

Source : IEEE

On 1 June 2009, Air France Flight 447, an Airbus A330-200, crashed into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 216 passengers and 12 crew members. No one knows why the plane fell out of the sky, because no one has ever found its black box.

The plane plunged so deep that the black box’s sonar beacon could not be heard, and by the time the French navy had dispatched a submarine to the area, the beacon’s battery had evidently died. Crash analysts were thus reduced to poring over information the airliner had transmitted before going silent, information too sparse to determine what had happened, let alone how to prevent it from happening on some other airliner.

For half a century, every commercial airplane in the world has been equipped with one of these rugged, reinforced, waterproof boxes, which each house a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder. For hundreds of crashes, they have given investigators the often heartbreaking details of the plane’s demise: the pilot’s frantic last words, his second-by-second struggles to keep the plane airborne, and the readings of the gauges and sensors that reveal such key parameters as the airspeed, altitude, and the state of the plane’s engines and flight-control surfaces. Such information has enabled analysts to infer the causes of most crashes and, often, to come up with preventive measures that have saved thousands of lives.

Every now and then, though, a black box is destroyed, lost beyond all chance of recovery or, as in the case of Air France 447, beyond all chance of detection. Lacking the black box and its precious data, we have no way to tell whether the last problem reported was the cause of the crash, the result of a deeper problem, or just an artifact of the sensor system on board. And because we can’t pinpoint the cause of the crash, we can take no steps to prevent similar failures in the future. Continue reading

MALAYSIA AIR FLIGHT 370 WOULD NOT HAVE DISSAPEARED IF WE’D HAD THIS SYSTEM

 

 A real-time flight-data recording method could have given investigators a far better idea of what has happened to Malaysian Airlines Flight 370, says Krishna Kavi, a professor of computer science and engineering at the University of North Texas, in Denton.

Kavi, calling it the glass box, in contrast to the black box, which records flight data and voice data. The black box can be replayed only after the fact, and then only if it can be salvaged from an airliner’s wreckage; the proposed glass box would immediately transmit the data to the cloud—the network of servers that increasingly blankets the earth.

“I strongly believe that our version of the black box (glass box) would have provided information indicating that all components of the plane were operating” in the wayward MH 370,  he said in an email yesterday. “It would have provided data on speed, altitude, direction of the flight… in real time.”

In his article for Spectrum, Kavi wrote that “the airplane would transmit directly to the ground where possible, but when flying high or over water, it would have to resort to transmission via networks of satellites, some high up in geosynchronous orbit, others much lower down.” Satellite relays would be relatively slow, but still they could include all relevant flight data, at least in compressed form. Continue reading

DARPA’s NEWEST X-PLANES CONCEPTS ARE ALL ROBOTS

Image: Boeing Artist’s concept of the Boeing Phantom Swift.

DARPA announced the four companies that’ll be competing to develop a new experimental aircraft that combines the efficiency of an airplane with the versatility of a helicopter. It’ll be something like a V-22 Osprey, except that DARPA is hoping for “radical improvements in vertical and cruise flight capabilities.” Three of the companies provided concept art to DARPA; Boeing’s Phantom Swift is pictured above. And the thing that every proposal has in common? They’re all robots. Continue reading

IN-WHEEL ELECTRIC CAR MOTORS GOES TO CHINA

Tucked In: Protean’s in-wheel electric motors would be more powerful than others and save space under the hood.

An innovative in-wheel motor for electric vehicles may get its first tryout in the smoggy, traffic-choked streets of Beijing—and could lead to a wave of powerful and radically redesigned electric cars. Protean Electric, an automotive start-up headquartered in Auburn Hills, Mich., is currently scouting sites for a manufacturing center in China and says the assembly line will be operational before the end of the year. The company expects its first customers to be Chinese automakers, who will use the motor in their plug-in hybrids or pure electric cars.

Andrew Whitehead, Protean’s director of strategic alliances, says China is becoming a test bed for electric vehicle technology, thanks to strong government support. “The way we see it, the key driver for electric and hybrid technology at the moment are government standards on emissions,” says Whitehead. “The regulations in China are certainly as strict as in Europe and North America, but there appears to be more political will to assist the industry in reaching those standards in China than in the rest of the world.” Air pollution in China’s capital city has reached a crisis point, and both manufacturers and car buyers in China can now benefit from government incentives designed to replace polluting cars with cleaner electric vehicles.

While a typical EV has a central motor under the hood that sends power down the driveshaft to the axles, the Protean system generates power directly in small motors tucked inside the wheels. With no energy lost in transmission, Protean says its motors can provide significant efficiency gains. In addition, these gearless, direct-drive motors can each generate an impressive 1000 newton meters (738 foot-pounds) of torque each. By comparison, the all-electric Chevy Volt’s motor generates about 370 Nm (273 foot-pounds). Protean says that providing that much torque to individual wheels gives vehicles superior handling and performance. The power and control electronics, including the inverters that change DC battery power to AC power that drives the motor, are all tucked into the wheel space.

  

Continue reading

CARBON NANOTUBE CIRCUITSIN THE RUNNING AS A VIABLE MATERIAL FOR FLEXIBLE ELCTRONICS

Flexible Electronics using Carbon Nano Tubes [CNT's]

 There was a time, not so long ago, when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were the “wonder material” that everyone was talking about—of course, that was before graphene hit the scene.

But even before graphene, researchers had begun to doubt whether CNTs were actually well suited for electronics applications. There are two stubborn obstacles that stand in the way of applying carbon nanotubes to electronics: it’s tricky to get them to go where you want them and it’s difficult to create CNTs that are homogeneous enough to ensure stable electrical responses. Continue reading

I2C COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

Introduction

In this tutorial, you will learn all about the I2C communication protocol, why you would want to use it, and how it’s implemented.

The Inter-integrated Circuit (I2C) Protocol is a protocol intended to allow multiple “slave” digital integrated circuits (“chips”) to communicate with one or more “master” chips. Like the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), it is only intended for short distance communications within a single device. Like Asynchronous Serial Interfaces (such as RS-232 or UARTs), it only requires two signal wires to exchange information.

Why Use I2C?

To figure out why one might want to communicate over I2C, you must first compare it to the other available options to see how it differs.

What’s Wrong with Serial Ports?

Because serial ports are asynchronous (no clock data is transmitted), devices using them must agree ahead of time on a data rate. The two devices must also have clocks that are close to the same rate, and will remain so–excessive differences between clock rates on either end will cause garbled data. Continue reading

TESLA’S $5 BILLION BATTERY FACTORY: SPENDING BIG TO SAVE BIG

A battery awaits installation in a Telsa Motor Inc. Model S sedan at the company’s assembly plant in Fremont, California, U.S., on Wednesday, July 10, 2013.

Tesla Motors plans to build a huge U.S. battery factory capable of supplying 500 000 electric cars annually by 2020. The $5-billion “Gigafactory” is expected to produce more lithium ion batteries in 2020 than all the lithium-ion batteries produced worldwide in 2013—a huge step on the road to driving down the cost of battery packs and mass-market electric cars.

A completed Gigafactory running at full production capacity in 2020 would allow Tesla, founded by Silicon Valley entrepreneur Elon Musk, to have an annual battery cell output of 35 gigawatt-hours. The Gigafactory’s initial launch in 2017 would coincide with Tesla’s plans to introduce a lower-cost, mass-market electric car in the same year, according to The Wall Street Journal. But lower lithium-ion battery costs could also open the door for new power storage opportunities beyond electric cars. Continue reading

MITSUBISHI PLANNING PREDICTIVE USER INTERFACE FOR CARS

It’s Saturday afternoon and you have to drive your daughter to soccer practice and pick up her friend on the way. You also want to listen to a particular radio program and make some important phone calls. To make your driving experience easier, Mitsubishi Electric is developing predictive technology that will suggest a route based on your previous driving history, come up with an alternative route if you hit a traffic jam, and make it simple as pushing a button to find that radio program, make those phone calls, and even adjust the air conditioning to boot.

Mitsubishi expects to ship its Ultra-simple HMI (human-machine interface) technology for in-car operations to auto manufacturers from spring 2018. It demonstrated a prototype system in a recent Open House event at its headquarters in Tokyo.

In a mock-up driver’s seat, the driver was able to easily operate four main functions: navigation, phone, air conditioner, and audio-visual system. This was done in one or two steps using a set of three buttons on the steering wheel while viewing three predicted operations on a 44-cm heads-up display (HUD) on the windshield Continue reading

AN INSIGHT INTO APPLE’S TOUCH ID IN IPHONE 5S

Touch ID is a fingerprint recognition feature, designed and released by Apple Inc., and currently only available on the seventh generation of iPhone, the iPhone 5S. Apple says Touch ID is heavily integrated into iOS 7 on supported devices, allowing users to unlock their phone, as well as make purchases in the various Apple digital media stores, all by quickly using one of up to five fingerprints the user can store on their device. Apple hopes for this to, at least partially, replace the user entering their passcode or password, although these are available as a backup method, and must also be used instead of Touch ID every once in a while. On announcing the feature, Apple made it clear that the fingerprint information is stored locally in a secure location on the Apple A7 chip on the device, rather than being cloud-based, making it very difficult for external access.

The Touch ID Sensor on iPhone 5s

Continue reading

PRINT 3-D FINGERPRINTS FOR BETTER BIOMETRICS

To test the accuracy of a new fingerprint scanner, researchers typically run millions of known fingerprint images through the system’s matching software. But this testing procedure can’t quite mimic real operating conditions, as a 2-D image fed into a program is fundamentally different than a 3-D finger pressed to a sensor. Continue reading

ROBOTS DETECTS LANDMINES FROM FAR, FAR AWAY

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In 2012, Clearpath Robotics decided to give away a customized Husky UGV to a worthy cause, and what could be more worthy than keeping us humans from getting blown up. The University of Coimbra in Portugal has taken its free Husky and turned it into an clever little autonomous mobile mine detector.

Huskies don’t come stock with the ability to detect mines. Or rather, they may be able to detect one single mine once. By accident. Catastrophically. To get the robot all set to not blow itself (or anyone else) into tiny little chunks, the team at Coimbra added sensors for navigation and localization (GPS, stereo vision, and a laser), as well as (more importantly) a customized two-degrees-of-freedom arm equipped with both a metal detector and a ground penetrating radar system. Continue reading

ORGAN IMPLANTS COULD POWER PACEMAKERS

dnews-files-2014-01-organ-powered-implant-670-jpg

Injectable medical sensors and embedded implants are becoming less of a sci-fi trope as they manifest into reality. While most devices are either designed to be charged wirelessly or simply react with bodily fluids, cyborgs of the future may power such implants by sewing energy harvesters directly onto their internal organs.

A team of researchers from several U.S. academic institutions and one from China created a small, piezoelectric device that, when attached to a constantly moving organ — such as the heart, lung or diaphragm — can harness enough electricity to power a pacemaker or other medical implant.

The device incorporates lead zirconate titanate nanoribbons that are housed in a flexible, biocompatible plastic. Also included is an integrated rectifier that converts the electric signals, plus a miniature rechargeable battery. Constant motion of the organ causes the nanoribbons to bend, thus creating small amounts of electricity. Continue reading

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Introduction

Integrated circuits (ICs) are a keystone of modern electronics. They are the heart and brains of most circuits. They are the ubiquitous little black “chips” you find on just about every circuit board. Unless you’re some kind of crazy, analog electronics wizard, you’re likely to have at least one IC in every electronics project you build, so it’s important to understand them, inside and out.

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Integrated circuits are the little black “chips”, found all over embedded electronics.

An IC is a collection of electronic components – resistors, transistors, capacitors, etc. – all stuffed into a tiny chip, and connected together to achieve a common goal. They come in all sorts of flavors: single-circuit logic gates, op amps, 555 timers, voltage regulators, motor controllers, microcontrollers, microprocessors, FPGAs…the list just goes on-and-on.

Covered in this Tutorial

  • The make-up of an IC
  • Common IC packages
  • Identifying ICs
  • Commonly used ICs

Inside the IC

When we think integrated circuits, little black chips are what come to mind. But what’s inside that black box?

51c0d009ce395feb33000000 Continue reading

WHAT IS ARDUINO? – LEARNING BY DOING

Introduction

Arduino is an open-source platform used for building electronics projects. Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred to as a microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that runs on your computer, used to write and upload computer code to the physical board.

The Arduino platform has become quite popular with people just starting out with electronics, and for good reason. Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards, the Arduino does not need a separate piece of hardware (called a programmer) in order to load new code onto the board–you can simply use a USB cable. Additionally, the Arduino IDE uses a simplified version of C++, making it easier to learn to program. Finally, Arduino provides a standard form factor that breaks out the functions of the micro-controller into a more accessible package. For more info about the Arduino, check here and here.

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This is an Arduino Uno

The Uno is one of the more popular boards in the Arduino family and a great choice for beginners. We’ll talk about what’s on it and what it can do later in the tutorial.

This is a screenshot of the Arduino IDE:

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Believe it or not, those 10 lines of code are all you need to blink the on-board LED on your Arduino. The code might not make perfect sense right now, but our tutorials on getting started with Arduino will get you up to speed in no time!

In this tutorial, we’ll go over some of the things you can do with an Arduino, what’s on the typical Arduino board, and some of the different kinds of Arduino boards.

We will learn:

  • What you might use an Arduino for
  • What is on the typical Arduino board and why
  • The different varieties of Arduino boards
  • Some useful widgets to use with your Arduino

What does it do?

The Arduino hardware and software was designed for artists, designers, hobbyists, hackers, newbies, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. Arduino can interact with buttons, LEDs, motors, speakers, GPS units, cameras, the internet, and even your smart-phone or your TV! This flexibility combined with the fact that the Arduino software is free, the hardware boards are pretty cheap, and both the software and hardware are easy to learn has led to a large community of users who have contributed code and released instructions for a huge variety of Arduino-based projects.

The Arduino can be used as the brains behind almost any electronics project.

And that’s really just the tip of the iceberg – if you’re curious about where to find more examples of Arduino projects in action, here are some good resources for Arduino-based projects to get your creative juices flowing:

What’s on the board? Continue reading

BATTERY TECHNOLOGY

Battery Options

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There are a multitude of different battery technologies available. There are some really great resources available for the nitty gritty details behind battery chemistries. Wikipedia is especially good and all encompassing. This tutorial focuses on the most often used batteries for embedded systems and DIY electronics.

Terminology

Here are some terms often used when talking about batteries.

Capacity – Batteries have different ratings for the amount of power a given battery can store. When a battery is fully charged, the capacity is the amount of power it contains. Batteries of the same type will often be rated by the amount of current they can output over time. For example, there are 1000mAh(milli-Amp Hour) and 2000mAh batteries.

Nominal Cell Voltage – The average voltage a cell outputs when charged. The nominal voltage of a battery depends on the chemical reaction behind it. A lead-acid car battery will output 12V. A lithium coin cell battery will output 3V.

The key word here is “nominal”, the actual measured voltage on a battery will decrease as it discharges. A fully charged LiPo battery will produce about 4.23V, while when discharged its voltage may be closer to 2.7V.

Shape – Batteries come in many sizes and shapes. The term ‘AA’ references a specific shape and style of a cell. There are a large variety.

Primary vs. Secondary – Primary batteries are synonymous with disposable. Once fully-drained, primary cells can’t be recharged (reliably/safely). Secondary batteries are better known asrechargeable. These require another power source to fully charge back up, but they can fully charge/discharge many times over their life. In general primary batteries have a lower discharge rate, so they’ll last longer, but they can be less economical than rechargeable batteries.

Common batteries, their chemistry, and their nominal voltage
Battery Shape Chemistry Nominal Voltage Rechargable?
AA, AAA, C, and D Alkaline or Zinc-carbon 1.5V No
9V Alkaline or Zinc-carbon 9V No
Coin cell Lithium 3V No
Silver Flat Pack Lithium Polymer (LiPo) 3.7V Yes
AA, AAA, C, D (Rechargeable) NiMH or NiCd 1.2V Yes
Car battery Six-cell lead-acid 12.6V Yes

Continue reading

PULL UP RESISTOR

Introduction

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Pull-up resistors are very common when using microcontrollers (MCUs) or any digital logic device. This tutorial will explain when and where to use pull-up resistors, then we will do a simple calculation to show why pull-ups are important.

What is a Pull-up Resistor

Let’s say you have an MCU with one pin configured as an input. If there is nothing connected to the pin and your program reads the state of the pin, will it be high (pulled to VCC) or low (pulled to ground)? It is difficult to tell. This phenomena is referred to as floating. To prevent this unknown state, a pull-up or pull-down resistor will insure that the pin is in either a high or low state, while also using a low amount of current.

For simplicity, we will focus on pull-ups since they are more common than pull-downs. They operate using the same concepts, except the pull-up resistor is connected to the high voltage (this is usually 3.3V or 5V and is often refereed to as VCC) and the pull-down resistor is connected to ground.

Pull-ups are often used with buttons and switches.

511568b6ce395f1b40000000 Continue reading

MAKE A SIMPLE 12 VOLT POWER SUPPLY

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Have you ever needed a 12 volt power supply that can supply maximum 1 amp? But trying to buy one from the store is a little too expensive?

Well, you can make a 12 volt power supply very cheaply and easily!

Step 1: Things that you will need…

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Things that you will need to make this power supply is…

  • Piece of protoboard
  • Four 1N4001 diodes
  • LM7812 regulator
  • Transformer that has an output of 14v – 35v AC with an output current between 100mA to 1A, depending how much power you will need.
  • 1000uF – 4700uF capacitor
  • 1uF capacitor
  • Two 100nF capacitors
  • Jumper wires (I used some plain wire as jumper wires)
  • Heatsink (optional)

Step 2: And the tools…

Also you will need the tools to make this power supply…

    • Soldering iron
    • Wire cutters
    • Wire strippers
    • A thing you can cut protoboard tracks.
    • Hot glue (To hold components down and make the power supply physically strong and sturdy.)
    • And some other tools that you might find helpful.

Okay, I think that is about it, lets get to work!

Step 3: Schematic and others…

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Picture of Schematic and others...
If you want a 5 volt power supply, just simply replace the LM7812 to a LM7805 regulator.
Datasheet for LM78XX

If you are going to pull out about 1 amp from this power supply, you will need a heatsink for the regulator, otherwise it will generate very high temperatures and possibly burn out…
However, if you are just going to pull out a few hundred milliamps (lower than 500mA) from it, you won’t need a heatsink for the regulator, but it may get a little bit warm.

Also, here’s the schematic…
I also add in an LED to make sure the power supply is working. You can add in an LED if you want.

Step 4: Make it!

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Make sure you get good solder joints and no solder bridges, otherwise your power supply won’t work!

Step 5: Test it!

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After you had built your power supply, test it with your multimeter to make sure they are no solder bridges.

After you tested it, put it in a plastic box or something to protect you from shocks.
But do not operate the power supply like I did, it is very dangerous because of the mains voltage on the transformer, you or somebody will get badly shocked!

My power supply has 11.73v output, not too bad, I don’t need it to be exactly 12v…

Step 6: Done…

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Source : Instructables

 

FIRST 3-D PRINTED SPEAKER

A loudspeaker playing a clip of President Barack Obama talking about 3-D printing in his State of the Union speech might not seem so remarkable—except that the loudspeaker represents one of the first 3-D printed consumer electronic devices in the world.

The 3-D printed loudspeaker is more expensive, took longer to make, and is of a lower quality than a typical mass-produced speaker, said Hod Lipson, an associate professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Cornell University. But he described his lab’s demonstration to IEEE Spectrum as providing a “glimpse of the future” by showing that 3-D printing technology can eventually create all the necessary components of electronic devices:

“The real challenge is one of material science: Can we make a series of inks that can serve as conductors, semiconductors, sensors, actuators, and power. These inks have to have good performance and be mutually compatible. We’re not there yet, but I think its well within reach—we’ll see a variety of platforms well within the next 5 years.”

Most 3-D printers usually build objects layer-by-layer from a single “passive” material such as plastic. But researchers have been testing how to use 3-D printing to squirt out conductive inks that can form the building blocks of integrated systems such as electronic devices.

The Cornell project—headed by mechanical engineering graduate students Apoorva Kiran and Robert MacCurdy—used two of the lab’s homegrown Fab@Home printers to create the 3-D printed loudspeaker parts. One printer made the plastic cone and base of the loudspeaker. The second printer laid down the wires on the cone and created a magnet inside the plastic base. (The team swapped out the second printer’s ink cartridge from conductor to magnet ink between printing runs.)

Silver ink provided the conductive material for the wire. For the magnet, Kiran enlisted the help of Samanvaya Srivastava, a graduate student in chemical and biomolecular engineering, to develop a strontium ferrite blend. Two Cornell undergraduates, Jeremy Blum and Elise Yang, also worked on the project.

The 3-D printed loudspeaker didn’t come out all in one piece—researchers manually moved the parts between the two printers and then snapped the cone and base together to complete the device. But Lipson says the complete loudspeaker could be printed on a single 3-D printer if the printer had multiple deposition tools capable of squirting out the different materials needed for the plastic, wires and magnet. Such printers could already be developed within labs in a month or so from a technical standpoint, but thebusiness demand is not there yet with 3-D printed electronics still in their infancy.

Lipson previously worked with former Cornell graduate students, Evan Malone and Matthew Alonso, to create a 3-D printed version of a working telegraph modeled on the Vail Register—the famous machine that Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail used to send the first Morse code telegraph in 1844. By comparison, the 3-D printed loudspeaker represents a relatively modern example of a commercial electronic device.

Once 3-D printing gets the hang of making electromagnetic systems, the technology could open the door for new customizable shapes and optimized performance for specific electronic devices—features that mass manufacturing can’t offer. Lipson described the idea of creating 3-D printed headsets, microphones, and other devices custom-made.

Eventually, 3-D printing could also revolutionize the manufacturing of robots. Lipson’s lab envisions using 3-D printers to build robots with “embedded wires and batteries shaped like limbs,” as well as all the other necessary components of robotic technology.

“We hope to be able to develop working electromagnetic motors in the future which would be the cornerstone upon which printed robots could be built,” said Robert MacCurdy, one of the Cornell graduate students heading the 3-D printed speaker project.

USB CABLES BUYING GUIDE

One day in 1994, seven world-leading technology companies sat down and created a new standard for connecting computer peripherals. By “one day,” of course I mean, “over the span of several months.” But all technicalities aside, the standard that they laid down became the Universal Serial Bus, or USB for short.

Today, USB is truly a ‘Universal’ standard and you’d be hard-pressed to find an electronic device that doesn’t have a USB port of one kind or another. But how do you know which USB cable will fit your device? Hopefully this buying guide will help you find the cable that you need for your next project.

What Does USB Do?

USB cables replace the huge variety of connectors that used to be standard for computer peripherals: Parallel ports, DB9 Serial, keyboard and mouse ports, joystick and midi ports… Really, it was getting out of hand. USB simplifies the process of installing and replacing hardware by making all communications adhere to a serial standard which takes place on a twisted pair data cable and identifies the device that’s connected. When you add the power and ground connections, you’re left with a simple 4-conductor cable that’s inexpensive to make and easy to stow.

500px-USB_half Continue reading

VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY USING LM 317 VOLTAGE CONTROLLER

We had earlier in 2 different posts discussed about a variable power supply using LM 317. But in this post we discuss clearly about the working and designing of the LM 317 power supply in detailed.

Block Diagram

This circuit, like all voltage regulators  must  follow the same general block diagram

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Here, we have got an input high voltage AC going into a transformer which usually steps down the high voltage AC from mains to low voltage AC required for our application. The following bridge rectifier and a smoothing capacitor to convert AC voltage into unregulated DC voltage. But this voltage will change according to varying load and input stability. This unregulated DC voltage is fed into a voltage regulator which will keep a constant output voltage and suppresses unregulated voltage ripples. Now this voltage can be fed into our load.

Firstly let us discuss about the need for the smoothing capacitance.As you know  the out put of the bridge rectifier will be as follows

Output-of-Brige-Rectifier

As you can see, although the waveform can be considered to be a DC voltage since the output polarity does not invert itself, the large ripples Continue reading

AMAZON PROMOTES DRONE DELIVERY

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In a masterful publicity stunt, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos announced on 60 Minutes — on the night before Cyber Monday — that his company has been working on a drone service that will deliver items under 5 pounds, and within ten miles of an Amazon fulfillment center, in under 30 minutes..

This is definitely exciting, but exactly how much does Amazon have to accomplish between now and Jeff’s launch goal of 2015? Getting the FAA onboard will be hard enough, but what about actually getting shipments out safely, when that time finally comes? Is this even possible, or simply a publicity stunt by the e-commerce giant? They’re definitely not the first to think about doing this. Matternet has been working on bringing drone-supported shipping to areas of the world where roads aren’t common, or structurally sound enough, to handle everyday deliveries. CEO Andreas Raptopoulos talked about his vision at May’s Hardware Innovation Workshop.

If Amazon is really going for it, here are the main challenges and some of my thoughts on how Amazon will handle them:

BATTERY POWER

Probably the easiest to deal with. Amazon says they’re shooting for 30 minute deliveries, which I’m assuming means 30 minutes from take-off to landing, not order to landing. Jeff says they will deliver to within 10 miles of an Amazon Fulfillment Center, which is doable if the octocopter can go at least 20mph. The challenge here is giving them enough battery power to survive the trip to the customer and back home. Carrying that much weight at that speed for up to an hour is going to require some heavy batteries. Continue reading

PIR SENSOR ARDUINO ALARM

Build a motion-sensing alarm with a PIR sensor and an Arduino microcontroller.

In this simple project, we’ll build a motion-sensing alarm using a PIR (passive infrared) sensor and an Arduino microcontroller. This is a great way to learn the basics of using digital input (from the sensor) and output (in this case, to a noisy buzzer) on your Arduino.

This alarm is handy for booby traps and practical jokes, and it’s just what you’ll need to detect a zombie invasion! Plus, it’s all built on a breadboard, so no soldering required!

Step #1: Gather your parts.

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  • This project requires just a few parts, and because you’re using a solderless breadboard and pre-cut jumper wires, you won’t need any tools at all — except your computer and USB cable to connect the Arduino.

Step #2: Wire the Arduino to the breadboard.

JHRErPeVwx4oQRk6 Continue reading

SIMPLE POWER SUPPLY

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I bet some of you had the same problem. I was working on this circuit on breadboard and I found out I do not have means to power that circuit. Batteries are too expensive for testing one circuit. In the end I was able to build small power supply that solved my problems.

Many times we can build PSU with small amount of elements. That is the story in this case. I upgraded PSU that already have 12 V output to 9 V with help of linear voltage regulator.

CAUTION : 
Be careful and cautious while proceeding with any project.

Step 1: Parts and materials.

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Parts:

- PCB
– low voltage connector
– 2 pins connector
– cooling element with nut and bolt and with isolating foil (foil is optional)
– piece of black and red wire and two pins
– 7809 voltage regulator
– 470 uF capacitor and 100 nF capacitor
– PSU with output between 12 and 16 V Continue reading

HOW TO BUILD A SIMPLEST VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT USING LM317

Whether it’s an electronic novice or an expert professional, a power supply unit is required by everybody in the field. It is the basic source of power that may be required for various electronic procedures, right from powering intricate electronic circuits to the robust electromechanical devices like motors, relays etc.
 
A power supply unit is a must for every electrical and electronic work bench and it’s available in a variety of shapes and sizes in the market and also in the form of schematics to us.
These may be built using discrete components like transistors, resistors etc. or incorporating a single chip for the active functions. No matter what the type may be, a power supply unit should incorporate the following features to become a universal and reliable with its nature:
  • It should be fully and continuously variable with its voltage and current outputs.
  • Variable current feature can be taken as an optional feature because it’s not an absolute requirement with a power supply, unless the usage is in the range of critical evaluations.
  • The voltage produced should be perfectly regulated.

IC 317 Power Supply, Simplest Continue reading

LM317 ADJUSTABLE VOLTAGE REGULATOR

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Every project needs a power supply. As 3.3volt logic replaces 5volt systems, we’re reaching for the LM317 adjustable voltage regulator , rather than the classic 7805 . We’ve found four different hobbyist-friendly packages for different situations.

A simple voltage divider  (R1,R2) sets the LM317 output between 1.25volts and 37volts; use this handy LM317 calculator  to find resistor values. The regulator does its best to maintain 1.25volts on the adjust pin (ADJ), and converts any excess voltage to heat. Not all packages are the same. Choose a part that can supply enough current for your project, but make sure the package has sufficient heat dissipation properties  to burn off the difference between the input and output voltages.

Voltage regulator

Schematic of LM317 in a typical voltage regulator configuration, including decoupling capacitors to address input noise and output transients.

The LM317 has three pins: Input, output, and adjustment. The device is conceptually an op amp (with a relatively high output current capacity). The inverting input of the amp is the adjustment pin, while the non-inverting input is set by an internal bandgap voltage referencewhich produces a stable reference voltage of 1.25V. Continue reading

POWER YOUR BREADBOARD WITH USB

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think that it is safe to say that most of the people who make (big or small) electronics-projects have a pc or laptop in theire hobbycorner and a lot of projects need 5V for IC’s or microcontrollers. So using power from a USB cable isn’t that farfetched and lets face it: a lot of devices around us use a USB-connection to get their power or to charge their batteries.

 About USB-connectors and power

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1.25 V TO 37V – 1.5A VARIABLE, ADJUSTABLE POWER SUPPLY USING LM317

A well designed and variable power supply for electronics hobbyists and DIY’ers is a must, you don’t want to spend a huge amount of money in batteries [On the long run]. A variable power supply can come in handy for testing and powering  any project you are building. The mentioned power supply ranges from 1.25V – 37V @ 1.5A using the famous LM317 voltage regulator. LM317T is a very famous IC and easily available in the market comes with 3 pins, supporting input voltage is from 3 volt to 40 volt DC and delivers a stable output between 1.25 volt to 37 volt DC.

THREE REASONS TO TAKE DIY TO THE NEXT LEVEL

Whether you are watching it on television or searching for it on Pinterest, chances are you have admired a few Do It Yourself (DIY) projects recently. Have you taken it a step further and actually completed a DIY project? There are three key reasons why the trend of DIY projects is so popular.

Fun

The first reason that people want to try a DIY project is usually because it sounds like fun. You learn a new skill and the end result will be just what you are looking for. Since Halloween is just around the corner you may be thinking: “Should I go searching for the perfect costume or should I try to design and sew it myself?” Not everyone would have an interest and natural ability in making their own costume so learning to sew would seem like fun. Chances are you are artistic and enjoy ways to tangibly express that creativity. Now imagine taking it one step further and Continue reading

SOUND GIVES OBJECTS A HUMAN TOUCH

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Touch screens are so ubiquitous that physical keyboards are becoming a thing of the past, at least for mobile devices. Now imagine if the capability of touch spread from the display to the entire device, allowing control by gently pressing on any part of the phone, or even making any household item into a touch-sensitive interface with your computer.

Anything solid vibrates a specific way when it’s hit physically with another object or with sound waves. The characteristic is called resonance. For example, when you tap on a crystal glass, it vibrates at a certain frequency, producing a ring. If you hit it with sound waves — for example, the ambient background noise in a room — it vibrates at a different frequency. Grip the glass while it rings, and the sound stops. Continue reading

POWER AND THERMAL DISSIPATION

As your embedded project grows in scope and complexity, power consumption becomes an ever more apparent issue. As power consumption increases, components like linear voltage regulators can heat up during normal operation. Some heat is okay, however when things get too hot, the performance of the linear regulator suffers.

How much is too much?

A good rule of thumb for voltage regulators is if the outer case becomes uncomfortable to the touch, then the part needs to have an efficient way to transfer the heat to another medium. A good way to do this is to add a heat sink as shown below.

breadboard Continue reading

FLEXIFORCE PRESSURE SENSOR – QUICK START GUIDE

Introduction

This is a quick how-to explaining everything you need to get started using your Flexiforce Pressure Sensor.  This example uses the 25lb version, but the concepts learned apply to all the Flex sensors.

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Requirements

Necessary hardware to follow this guide:

  • Arduino UNO or other Arduino compatible board
  • Flexiforce Pressure Sensor
  • Breadboard
  • M/M Jumper Wires
  • 1 MegaOhm Resistor  Continue reading

WHY SHOULD YOU DE-RATE CAPACITORS

Capacitors Galore

Capacitors are one of the most common elements found in electronics, and they come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and values. There are also many different methods to manufacture a capacitor. As a result, capacitors have a wide array of properties that make some capacitor types better for specific situations. I would like to take three of the most common capacitors – ceramic, electrolytic, and tantalum – and examine their abilities to handle reverse and over-voltage situations. Note: several capacitors were harmed in the making of this post.

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Ceramic Capacitors

The most common capacitor is the multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC). These are found on almost every piece of electronics, often in small, surface-mount variants. Ceramic capacitors are produced from alternating laye Continue reading

UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND WHY IT’S IMPORTANT

Power factor is a measure of how effectively you are using electricity. Various types of power are at work to provide us with electrical energy. Here is what each one is doing.

Working Power – the “true” or “real” power used in all electrical appliances to perform the work of heating, lighting, motion, etc. We express this as kW or kilowatts. Common types of resistive loads are electric heating and lighting.

An inductive load, like a motor, compressor or ballast, also requires Reactive Power to generate and sustain a magnetic field in order to operate. We call this non-working power kVAR’s, or kilovolt-amperes-reactive.

Every home and business has both resistive and inductive loads. The ratio between these two types of loads becomes important as you add more inductive equipment. Working power and reactive power make up Apparent Power, which is called kVA, kilovolt-amperes. We determine apparent power using the formula, kVA2 = kV*A.

Going one step further, Power Factor (PF) is the ratio of working power to apparent power, or the formula PF = kW / kVA. A high PF benefits both the customer and utility, while a low PF indicates poor utilization of electrical power.  Continue reading

RFID TECHNOLOGY

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is technology that allows machines to identify an object without touching it, even without a clear line of sight. Furthermore, this technology can be used to identify several objects simultaneously. RFID can be found everywhere these days – anything from your cat to your car contains RFID technology. This post will cover how RFID works, some practical uses, and maybe even some example code for reading RFID data.

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What is RFID?

RFID is a sort of umbrella term used to describe technology that uses radio waves to communicate. Generally, the data stored is in the form of a serial number. Many RFID tags, contain a 32-bit hexadecimal number. At its heart, the RFID card contains an antenna attached to a microchip. When the chip is properly powered, it transmits the serial number through the antenna, which is then read and decoded. Continue reading

HOW IC 555 TIMER WORKS? – DETAILED WALKTHROUGH

Pin-wise functioning of IC555 timer

Pin-1, GROUND: It is the GROUND PIN of the IC. The negative terminal of DC power supply or battery is connected to this pin. Here note that IC555 works always on single rail power supply and NEVER on dual power supply, unlike operational amplifiers.

Also note that this pin should be connected directly to ground and NOT through any resistor or capacitor. If done so, the IC will not function properly and may heat up and get damaged. This happens because all the semiconductor blocks inside the IC will be raised by certain amount of stray voltage and will damage the IC. Refer the block diagram of the IC for more details. For more details read elaborate collection of FAQ on this IC.

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Pin-2, TRIGGER It is known as TRIGGER PIN. As the name suggests in triggers i.e. starts the timing cycle of the IC. It is connected to the inverting input terminal of  trigger comparator inside the IC. As this pin is connected to inverting input terminal, it accepts negative voltage pulse to trigger the timing cycle. So it triggers when the voltage at this pin LESS THAN 1/3 of the supply voltage (Vcc). Continue reading

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION [PWM]

Pulse width modulation is a fancy term for describing a type of digital signal. Pulse width modulation is used in a variety of applications including sophisticated control circuitry. A common way we use them is to control dimming of RGB LEDs or to control the direction of a servo motor. We can accomplish a range of results in both applications because pulse width modulation allows us to vary how much time the signal is high in an analog fashion. While the signal can only be high (usually 5V) or low (ground) at any time, we can change the proportion of time the signal is high compared to when it is low over a consistent time interval.

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Robotic claw controlled by a servo motor using Pulse Width Modulation

Duty Cycle

When the signal is high, we call this “on time”. To describe the amount of “on time” , we use the concept of duty cycle. Duty cycle is measured in percentage. The percentage duty cycle specifically describes the percentage of time a digital signal is on over an interval or period of time. This period is the inverse of the frequency of the waveform.

If a digital signal spends half of the time on and the other half off, we would say the digital signal has a duty cycle of 50% and resembles an ideal square wave. If the percentage is higher than 50%, the digital signal spends more time in the high state than the low state and vice versa if the duty cycle is less than 50%. Here is a graph that illustrates these three scenarios:

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LED LIGHT BAR HOOKUP

INTRODUCTION

LED Light Bars are a super-easy way to add some extra-bright and colorful illumination to your project. Each Light Bar is essentially a set of three super-bright 5050-size LEDs. They’re offered in a variety of colors including white, red, blue, and green.

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While these bars are very simple devices, they do have a few quirks when it comes to using them. Like the fact that their nominal operating voltage is 12V. In this tutorial we’ll go over some of the important specifications of these LED Light Bars. Then we’ll dive into some example circuits that can help you get the most of these nifty little LED assemblies.

Hardware Overview

A glance at the LED Bars will reveal that there’s not a whole lot required to interface with them. There are two pairs of wire pigtails coming off the sides, labeled ‘+’ and ‘-’. The darker-gray wire connects to the ‘+’ pin, and the white wire connects to ‘-’ on both sides.

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LED CURRENT LIMITING RESISTORS

Limiting current into an LED is very important. An LED behaves very differently to a resistor in circuit. Resistors behave linearly according to Ohm’s law: V = IR. For example, increase the voltage across a resistor, the current will increase proportionally, as long as the resistor’s value stays the same. Simple enough. LEDs do not behave in this way. They behave as a diode with a characteristic I-V curve that is different than a resistor.

For example, there is a specification for diodes called the characteristic (or recommended) forward voltage (usually between 1.5-4V for LEDs). You must reach the characteristic forward voltage to turn ‘on’ the diode or LED, but as you exceed the characteristic forward voltage, the LED’s resistance quickly drops off. Therefore, the LED will begin to draw a bunch of current and in some cases, burn out. A resistor is used in series with the LED to keep the current at a specific level called the characteristic (or recommended) forward current.

image1 Continue reading

CONTROLLING BIG, MEAN DEVICES

Microcontrollers are a ton of fun. Once I got hooked, there was no

turning back. Initially playing with sensors and LCDs, I quickly discovered the limits to what a microcontroller could control. A microcontroller’s GPIO (general purpose input/output) pins cannot handle higher power requirements. An LED was easy enough, but large power items such as light bulbs, toaster ovens, and blenders required more sneaky circuitry. Something sneaky called a relay:

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In this tutorial we will discuss a small relay board to control the power to a normal AC outlet using 5VDC control.

All the usual warnings apply: Main voltage (120VAC or 220VAC) can kill you. This project, done incorrectly, could certainly burn down your house. Do not work on or solder to any part of a project while it is plugged into the wall – just unplug it!

You can get the Eagle files for the control board here. The control board is composed of a relay along with a NPN transistor and LED. Continue reading

ENGINURSDAY – ON SELF TAUGHT ELECTRONICS

More and more these days, I am meeting people who have built complex, impressive, and clever electronic projects, and, when I ask, I’m surprised to find out that they have no formal engineering or technical education. Now, I’m not surprised because I don’t believe that electronics can’t be learned outside of a university, a good deal of my job is to try to teachelectronics outside a university. I’m surprised because, more often than not, this impressive project will include a design element, component, or concept that I doubt I ever would have been exposed to had I not attended college. How do people learn a complex subject, like say, fourth-order filters, on their own time? I am always blown away by the fact that people have mastered concepts, on their own, that I had never even heard of, let alone attempted to study, before I had the dreadful feeling of finding out that it was one of my required college courses.

Where are these people getting this information?! How did they manage to find such a (sometimes) very dry subject and keep themselves engaged long enough to master it? I ask these questions because I’m jealous. I’m jealous of artists and designers that were exposed to this field at a young age. I’m especially jealous of those lucky people who manage to find just the right book, or mentor, or resource to teach them and keep them engaged in a subject that, in college, I paid a boatload of money for someone to teach me. Continue reading

SKIN TATOO TAKES BODY TEMPERATURE

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When it comes to grafting electronics onto skin, John Rogers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign churns out epidermic tech at a seemingly fevered pitch. Perhaps his latest creation will make sure he doesn’t overheat.

Along with a team of researchers from the U.S., China, and Singapore, Rogers has designed an extremely pliable patch that, when applied to the skin, can accurately measure skin temperatureand Continue reading

CONNECTING A RELAY TO ARDUINO

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Why use a relay with an Arduino board?

Individual applications will vary, but in short – a relay allows our relatively low voltage Arduino to easily control higher power circuits. A relay accomplishes this by using the 5V outputted from an Arduino pin to energize an electromagnet which in turn closes an internal, physical switch attached to the aforementioned higher power circuit. You can actually hear the switch *click* closed on even small relays – just like the big ones on street corners used for traffic signals. Continue reading

A MICRO RELAY AT WORK

relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

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htsybluxcykpudib Continue reading

GARAGE CAR DETECTOR WITHOUT A MICROCONTROLLER


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At the end of this instructable you will be able to detect your car as it approaches the wall inside your garage, signalling you that the car is inside far enough so you can close the door.
Most car sensors will use a microprocessor to help calculate the distance of an approaching car when entering the garage.

The main component and the challenge was to use a 555 timer as the driving “brains” of the project. So here we go: Continue reading

RC CIRCUIT FOR BIBBERBEEST/ VIBROBOT

 

 

Lets now start of with a new series – “Hobby DIY Electronics” which contains small projects to start for beginners, robotics and much more. Enjoy the series of upcoming posts and do leave your experiences and messages in the comments section below.

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Making Bibberbeests with kids is a HUGE success at schools, parties and festivals

Now what is more fun than a Bibberbeest? A remote controlled bibberbeest, using a standard audio/video RC?
So what I needed was a receiver circuit for a standard TV RC that can switch on and off a Bibberbeest’s motor, working on 3 Volts max.

At first I was tempted to go the microcontroller way, But in my eternal search to keep things simple, I eventually decided to use a hardware-only circuit: Just eight parts on a 2,5 x 4 cm board (1″ x 1,5″).
After some trial and error I used this IR toggle switch diagram (with slight mods) around a 555 timer chip by member BIC, which works quite well.

Step 1: Tools and materials

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REPLACING A BATTERY PACK WITH CONSUMER AAA RECHARGEABLE NiMH BATTERIES

Recently I wanted to replace a rechargeable battery pack from a RC car. I tried getting a rechargeable battery pack similar to the original one but that didn’t last even half the period the original one had lasted. So I had to find out an economical way of getting batteries replaced.

Instead of taking a chance on another unreliable replacement battery pack, I decided to look inside the existing one. The plastic shell consists of two parts held together with transparent tape that is easily removed with a razor blade. Inside, there are three industrial tabbed cells of the same length and diameter of consumer AAA cells, without the bump on the positive terminal.

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Given the identical cell size, it distresses me that the  manufacturer didn’t simply mold a AAA battery holder into the handset. This consumer-friendly feature would have allowed the end user to replace the individual cells using off-the-shelf consumer batteries. The idealist assumes this is a safety feature to prevent errant installation of alkaline cells or mixed chemistries that might catch on fire when recharged from the base. Continue reading

ADAPTIVE VEHICLE LIGHTING SYSTEM

When a vehicle is driven on the highway at night, it is required that light beam should be of high density and should illuminate the road at a distance sufficiently ahead. However, when a vehicle coming in the opposite direction approaches the vehicle with a high-beam headlight, driver of that vehicle will experience a glare, which may blind him. This dazzle effect is one of the major problems faced by a driver in night driving. To avoid this impermanent blindness, a separate filament is usually fitted in the “dual-filament” headlight bulb in a position such that light beam from this second filament is deflected both down and sideways so that the driver of the oncoming car is not blinded. In practice, one mechanical dimmer switch is used by the driver to manually select high (bright) or low (dim) headlight beam. However, this is an awkward task for the driver especially during peak traffics.

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Our project “Adaptive Lighting System for Automobiles” is a smart solution for safe and convenient night driving without the intense dazzling effect and aftermaths. Adaptive Lighting System for Automobiles needs no manual Continue reading